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»Great Wall of China«
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Keywords

  • aesthetics
    • acoustic
    • affective
    • anamorphic
    • animated
    • anthropomorph
    • assembled
    • automated
    • autopoietic
    • collaborative
    • contextual
    • cybernetic
    • disgusting
    • documenting
    • duplicated
    • dynamic system
    • ephemeral
    • experimental
    • found object
    • generative
    • gustatory
    • hypermediacy
    • illusionary
    • immaterial
    • immersive
    • installation-based
    • interactive
    • intermedial
    • intervention
    • mobile
    • modular
    • multi-user
    • multiple
    • narrative
    • navigable
    • networked
    • olfactory
    • panoramatic
    • performative
    • polysensory
    • processual
    • projected
    • real-time
    • remediated
    • remixed
    • sculptural
    • site-specific
    • sonification
    • sublime
    • tactile
    • telematic
    • three-dimensional
    • time-based
    • uncanny
    • virtual
    • visual
  • genre
    • Bio Art
      • Genetic Art
      • Transgenic Art
    • Database Art
    • Digital Activism
    • Digital Animation
    • Digital Community (Social Network)
    • Digital Graphics
    • Game Art
    • Glitch Art
    • Hybrid Art
    • installation
      • interactive installation
      • performative installation
      • sound installation
      • Virtual Reality
        • Augmented Reality
        • Mixed Reality
    • Nano Art
    • Net Art
    • Performance
      • Computer performance
      • Happening
      • multimedia performance
      • sound performance
      • video performance
    • robotics
    • Telematic Art
  • subject
    • ART AND SCIENCE
      • algorithm
      • anthropology
      • archaeology
      • artificial intelligence
      • astronomy
      • biology
      • botany
      • cartography
      • code
      • combinatorics
      • cyberspace
      • database
      • documentation
      • evidence
      • experiment
      • geography
      • geometry
      • history of science
      • humanities
      • library
      • light
      • machine
      • mathematic
      • medicine
      • microscopy
      • nanotechnology
      • neuroscience
      • philosophy
      • physics
      • psychology
      • Representation of knowledge
      • research
      • science
      • scientific image
      • space
      • statistics
      • stereoscope
    • ARTS AND VISUAL CULTURE
      • allegory
      • animation
      • architecture
      • art history
      • art market
      • beauty
      • cinema
      • Concept Art
      • conservation
      • dance
      • expanded cinema
      • fashion
      • gaze
      • grid
      • illusion
      • literature
      • mask
      • materiality
      • mirror
      • model
      • museum
      • music
      • nude
      • panopticon
      • panorama
      • personification
      • perspective
      • poetry
      • projection
      • representativeness
      • shadow
      • sketch
      • spectator
      • symbolism
      • theatre
      • Theory
        • complexity
        • media theory
        • modernism
        • postmodernism
        • poststructuralism
        • semiotics
        • simulacrum
      • virtuality
      • visual culture
    • BODY AND HUMAN
      • agency
      • anatomy
      • body
      • breathing
      • cybersex
      • cyborg
      • death
      • disease
      • dream
      • embodiment
      • empathy
      • expression
      • eye
      • facial expression
      • fantasy
      • feeling
        • affect
        • emotion
      • gender
      • genetics
      • gesture
      • hand
      • human
      • identity
      • intimacy
      • movement
      • pain
      • perception
      • performativity
      • physiognomy
      • posthuman
      • self awareness
      • senses
      • sexuality
      • skin
      • speech
      • surgery
    • HISTORY AND MEMORY
      • ancestor
      • antiquity
      • archive
      • artifacts
      • collective memory
      • colonialism
      • cultural heritage
      • historical site
      • historism
      • history
      • meme
      • memorial
      • modern era
      • nostalgia
      • postcolonialism
      • preservation
      • romanticism
      • teleology
      • tradition
    • MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION
      • access
      • advertising
      • Big Data
      • broadcast
      • commerce
      • communication
      • electronic media
      • error message
      • film
      • global village
      • hypertext
      • information
      • intermediality
      • internet
      • language
      • media archaeology
      • open source
      • print media
      • radio
      • search engine
      • social media
      • telecommunication
      • telephone
      • television
      • video surveillance
      • visualisation
      • writing
    • NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT
      • agriculture
      • animal
      • anthropocentrism
      • atmosphere
      • catastrophe
      • DNA
      • earth
      • ecosystem
      • energy
      • environment
      • evolution
      • four elements
      • geology
      • global warming
      • globe
      • landscape
      • magnetism
      • nature
      • ocean
      • outer space
      • physical law
      • plant
      • pollution
      • sustainability
      • vegetation
      • water
      • weather
    • POWER AND POLITICS
      • authority
      • banking
      • censorship
      • conspiracy
      • democracy
      • discrimination
      • economy
      • equality
      • geopolitics
      • governance
      • heroism
      • human rights
      • imperialism
      • institution
      • law
      • manipulation
      • market
      • military
      • nationalism
      • patriarchy
      • politics
      • sovereignty
      • surveillance
      • terrorism
      • violence
      • warfare
    • RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY
      • afterlife
      • Alchemy
      • bible
      • church
      • creation
      • crucifixion
      • esoterism
      • exodus
      • heretic
      • legend
      • mysticism
      • myth
      • mythological creature
      • mythology
      • paradise
      • religion
        • buddhism
        • christianity
        • islam
        • judaism
      • ritual
      • sacrifice
      • Saint
      • sin
      • spirituality
      • vision
      • worship
    • SOCIETY AND CULTURE
      • activism
      • capitalism
      • civilisation
      • community
      • consumption
      • counterculture
      • digital identity
      • diversity
      • ethnicity
      • feminism
      • globalization
      • individuality
      • information society
      • interculturalism
      • mass
      • mass culture
        • entertainment
        • parody
        • phantasmagoria
        • popular culture
        • spectacle
      • migration
      • minority
      • morality
      • native
      • otherness
      • participation
      • poverty
      • privacy
      • racism
      • territory
      • unemployment
      • urban space
      • voyeurism
      • wealth
      • working class
    • TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION
      • artificial life
      • cybernetics
      • development
      • digitization
      • electricity
      • emulation
      • engineering
      • history of technology
      • innovation
      • intelligent environment
      • invention
      • mechanics
      • military technology
      • mobility
      • nonhuman communication
      • optics
      • product design
      • production
      • robot
      • simulation
      • supercomputing
      • technophobia
      • telematics
      • telepresence
  • Technology
    • Display
      • Electronic displays
        • BOOM (Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor)
        • CAVE (Computered Augmented Virtual Environment)
        • computer monitor
        • Electromechanical Display Device
        • Electronic Paper
        • flashlight
        • Head-up Display
        • Headphones
        • HMD (Head-mounted Display)
        • holography
        • laser
        • light-emitting diode
        • plasma
        • printer
        • projection screen
        • projector
        • robotic
        • speakers
        • VFD (Vacuum Florescent Display)
        • VRD (Virtual Retinal Display)
      • Non-electronic displays
        • body
        • Book
        • easel painting
        • globe
        • house wall
        • inflatable structure
        • mirror
        • paper
        • sculpture
        • shutter glasses
        • sofa
        • Somatosensory System / Tactile Feedback Technology
        • table
    • Hardware
      • camera
      • computer mouse
      • data glove
      • Joystick
      • MAC
      • Mobile Device
      • multi touchscreen
      • plotter
      • scanner
      • touchscreen
      • Video
      • Virtual Workbench
      • Virtuscope
      • webcam
    • interface
      • Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC)
      • biometrics
      • Body sensor
        • Body Tracking
        • brainwave sensor
        • breathing sensor
        • Breathing-Balance-Interface-Vest
        • Endoscope
        • eye scanner
        • facial recognition system
        • Motion Capture
        • positiontracker
        • retina scanner
        • Speech Recognition
        • step sensor
      • camera recording
      • electromagnetism
      • interactive media
        • Auditory User Interface (AUI)
        • Augmented Reality Interfaces
        • breath based communication
        • Internet of Things (IoT)
        • Ludic Interface
        • MR-based (Mixed Reality) Interaction
        • Multi-Modal Interaction
        • tactile user interfaces
        • Tangible Acoustic Interface
        • Tangible User Interface (TUI)
        • Voice User interface
      • Non-electronic interface
        • bike
        • doll
        • furniture
        • plant
      • Soundgenerating device
        • Audiotape
        • keyboard
        • microphone
        • musical instrument
        • RFID (Radio-frequency Identification)
        • Speech Recognition
        • syntheziser
        • telephone
        • Theremin
        • turntable
        • voice analysis
        • Voice User Interface (VUI)
      • virtual balance
    • Software
      • C++
      • CGI/Perl
      • CSS
      • Global Positioning System (GPS)
      • ISDN
      • Java
      • Linux
      • Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
      • periscope
      • PHP
      • RFID (Radio-frequency Identification)
      • robotic interfaces
      • SGI Onyx2
      • softimage
      • software interface
      • Video
      • VRML
      • Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
      • XML
1934
Information
Cite
X
Archive of Digital Art (ADA). “Simon Biggs - »Great Wall of China«”. https://www.digitalartarchive.at/database/general/work/great-wall-of-china.html (retrieved 2010-03-10). @online{ADAartistprofile, author = {Archive of Digital Art (ADA)}, title = {Simon Biggs - »Great Wall of China«}, url = {https://www.digitalartarchive.at/database/general/work/great-wall-of-china.html}, urldate = {retrieved 2010-03-10}
Technology
Software
Still images from the CD-ROM version of The Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is conceived for simultaneous realisation across media, including a Website (1995-96), a CD-ROM with portfolio of prints (1997-99) and an interactive installation (1999). The foundation of The Great Wall of China is a real-time interactive language machine. This uses the metaphor of the actual Great Wall of China as a navigational device. The system is capable of creating an endless stream of ever evolving and changing texts.

The inspiration for this project began with the short story of the same name by Franz Kafka. The database for the work consists of all the individual words in the original Kafka story. There are no linguistic structures stored in the system beyond the individual words. All sentences and grammar structures are formed "on the fly" through object oriented and behavioural programming techniques, based on pattern recognition, redundancy algorithms and Chomskian Formal Grammars. Formal Grammars are used at the sentence level to generate individual sentences and ensure a degree of correctness in syntactical formation. This basic grammar system is augmented with many small ad hoc functions for dealing with plurality, conjugation, tense, etc. Most of these functions operate at the word level, but depend on "self-reading" texts and backtracking techniques. Pattern recognition techniques are used at the higher level of content generation and contextualisation. This strategy has been employed as it was the objective to avoid having any form of "story-telling" model in the system. The artist also wished to avoid using behavioural (Artificial Life) or Agent (for example, modelling a "story-telling" agent) based techniques, as the intention has been to create a system where the story, its subjects, actions and context, would emerge from the formation of the language itself, as something simultaneously written and read. Although at this point this technology is still in early development it does lead to a prose form that is very open, unexpected in its results and poetic.

This project has received funding from The Arts Council of England and Eastern Arts. It is produced by the Film and Video Umbrella, London. The CD-ROM and print portfolio are published by Ellipsis, London. The installation version was commissioned by the Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, UK.

Ellipsis,London
info@ellipsis.net
Descriptions & Essays
The Great Wall of China is conceived for simultaneous realisation across media, including a Website (1995-96), a CD-ROM with portfolio of prints (1997-99) and an interactive installation (1999). The foundation of The Great Wall of China is a real-time interactive language machine. This uses the metaphor of the actual Great Wall of China as a navigational device. The system is capable of creating an endless stream of ever evolving and changing texts. The inspiration for this project began with the short story of the same name by Franz Kafka. The database for the work consists of all the individual words in the original Kafka story. There are no linguistic structures stored in the system beyond the individual words. All sentences and grammar structures are formed "on the fly" through object oriented and behavioural programming techniques, based on pattern recognition, redundancy algorithms and Chomskian Formal Grammars. Formal Grammars are used at the sentence level to generate individual sentences and ensure a degree of correctness in syntactical formation. This basic grammar system is augmented with many small ad hoc functions for dealing with plurality, conjugation, tense, etc. Most of these functions operate at the word level, but depend on "self-reading" texts and backtracking techniques. Pattern recognition techniques are used at the higher level of content generation and contextualisation. This strategy has been employed as it was the objective to avoid having any form of "story-telling" model in the system. The artist also wished to avoid using behavioural (Artificial Life) or Agent (for example, modelling a "story-telling" agent) based techniques, as the intention has been to create a system where the story, its subjects, actions and context, would emerge from the formation of the language itself, as something simultaneously written and read. Although at this point this technology is still in early development it does lead to a prose form that is very open, unexpected in its results and poetic. This project has received funding from The Arts Council of England and Eastern Arts. It is produced by the Film and Video Umbrella, London. The CD-ROM and print portfolio are published by Ellipsis, London. The installation version was commissioned by the Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, UK.
Literature
Biggs, Simon and Mariza Dima and Henrik Ekeus and Sue AND Timmons Hawksley and Mark Wright. »The "H" in HCI: Enhancing Perception of Interaction through the Performative.« In Virtual and Mixed Reality, edited by R. ShumakerVol.LNCS 5622. , 3-12. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, 2009.
Biggs, Simon. »Multimedia, Multiculturalism, Language and the Avantgarde.« http://littlepig.org.uk/texts/epoetry.htm[12.04.2015.