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»Boids«
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Keywords

  • aesthetics
    • acoustic
    • affective
    • anamorphic
    • animated
    • anthropomorph
    • assembled
    • automated
    • autopoietic
    • collaborative
    • contextual
    • cybernetic
    • disgusting
    • documenting
    • duplicated
    • dynamic system
    • ephemeral
    • experimental
    • found object
    • generative
    • gustatory
    • hypermediacy
    • illusionary
    • immaterial
    • immersive
    • installation-based
    • interactive
    • intermedial
    • intervention
    • mobile
    • modular
    • multi-user
    • multiple
    • narrative
    • navigable
    • networked
    • olfactory
    • panoramatic
    • performative
    • polysensory
    • processual
    • projected
    • real-time
    • remediated
    • remixed
    • sculptural
    • site-specific
    • sonification
    • sublime
    • tactile
    • telematic
    • three-dimensional
    • time-based
    • uncanny
    • virtual
    • visual
  • genre
    • Bio Art
      • Genetic Art
      • Transgenic Art
    • Database Art
    • Digital Activism
    • Digital Animation
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    • Digital Graphics
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  • Technology
    • Display
      • Electronic displays
        • BOOM (Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor)
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      • Non-electronic displays
        • body
        • Book
        • easel painting
        • globe
        • house wall
        • inflatable structure
        • mirror
        • paper
        • sculpture
        • shutter glasses
        • sofa
        • Somatosensory System / Tactile Feedback Technology
        • table
    • Hardware
      • camera
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      • multi touchscreen
      • plotter
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    • interface
      • Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC)
      • biometrics
      • Body sensor
        • Body Tracking
        • brainwave sensor
        • breathing sensor
        • Breathing-Balance-Interface-Vest
        • Endoscope
        • eye scanner
        • facial recognition system
        • Motion Capture
        • positiontracker
        • retina scanner
        • Speech Recognition
        • step sensor
      • camera recording
      • electromagnetism
      • interactive media
        • Auditory User Interface (AUI)
        • Augmented Reality Interfaces
        • breath based communication
        • Internet of Things (IoT)
        • Ludic Interface
        • MR-based (Mixed Reality) Interaction
        • Multi-Modal Interaction
        • tactile user interfaces
        • Tangible Acoustic Interface
        • Tangible User Interface (TUI)
        • Voice User interface
      • Non-electronic interface
        • bike
        • doll
        • furniture
        • plant
      • Soundgenerating device
        • Audiotape
        • keyboard
        • microphone
        • musical instrument
        • RFID (Radio-frequency Identification)
        • Speech Recognition
        • syntheziser
        • telephone
        • Theremin
        • turntable
        • voice analysis
        • Voice User Interface (VUI)
      • virtual balance
    • Software
      • C++
      • CGI/Perl
      • CSS
      • Global Positioning System (GPS)
      • ISDN
      • Java
      • Linux
      • Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
      • periscope
      • PHP
      • RFID (Radio-frequency Identification)
      • robotic interfaces
      • SGI Onyx2
      • softimage
      • software interface
      • Video
      • VRML
      • Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
      • XML
774
Information
Cite
X
Archive of Digital Art (ADA). “Craig W. Reynolds - »Boids«”. https://www.digitalartarchive.at/database/general/work/boids.html (retrieved 1970-01-01). @online{ADAartistprofile, author = {Archive of Digital Art (ADA)}, title = {Craig W. Reynolds - »Boids«}, url = {https://www.digitalartarchive.at/database/general/work/boids.html}, urldate = {retrieved 1970-01-01}
Technology
Descriptions & Essays
In 1986 Craig W. Reynolds made a computer model of coordinated animal motion such as bird flocks and fish schools. It was based on three dimensional computational geometry of the sort normally used in computer animation or computer aided design. The artist called the generic simulated flocking creatures boids. The basic flocking model consists of three simple steering behaviors which describe how an individual boid maneuvers based on the positions and velocities its nearby flockmates. Each boid has direct access to the whole scene's geometric description, but flocking requires that it reacts only to flockmates within a certain small neighborhood around itself. The neighborhood is characterized by a distance (measured from the center of the boid) and an angle, measured from the boid's direction of flight. Flockmates outside this local neighborhood are ignored. The neighborhood could be considered a model of limited perception (as by fish in murky water) but it is probably more correct to think of it as defining the region in which flockmates influence a boids steering. A slightly more elaborate behavioral model was used in the early experiments. It included predictive obstacle avoidance and goal seeking. Obstacle avoidance allowed the boids to fly through simulated environments while dodging static objects. For applications in computer animation, a low priority goal seeking behavior caused the flock to follow a scripted path. In cooperation with coworkers at the Symbolics Graphics Division and Whitney / Demos Productions, Reynolds made an animated short featuring the boids model called Stanley and Stella in: Breaking the Ice. Since 1987 there have been many other applications of the boids model in the realm of behavioral animation. The 1992 Tim Burton film Batman Returns was the first. It contained computer simulated bat swarms and penguin flocks which were created with modified versions of the original boids software developed at Symbolics. The boids model is an example of an individual-based model, a class of simulation used to capture the global behavior of a large number of interacting autonomous agents. Individual-based models are being used in biology, ecology, economics and other fields of study. (source: www.red3d.com/cwr/boids)
Literature
Exhibitions & Events