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(collective) Sommerer / Mignonneau
* 1964
http://www.iamas.ac.jp/~christa/

Cite
X
Archive of Digital Art (ADA). “(collective) Sommerer / Mignonneau – artist profile”. https://www.digitalartarchive.at/database/artists/general/artist/sommerer-mignonneau.html. (retrieved 2015-21-05). @online{ADAartistprofile, author = {Archive of Digital Art (ADA)}, title = {(collective) Sommerer / Mignonneau artist profile}, url = {https://www.digitalartarchive.at/database/artists/general/artist/sommerer-mignonneau.html}, urldate = {retrieved 2015-21-05}
About
Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau are internationally renowned media artists working in the field of interactive computer installation. They are Professors at the University of Art and Design in Linz Austria where they head the Department for Interface Culture at the Institute for Media. They develop natural and intuitive interfaces and often apply scientific principles such as artificial life, complexity and generative systems to their innovative interface designs. Sommerer and Mignonneau previously held positions as Professors at the IAMAS International Academy of Media Arts and Sciences in Gifu, Japan and as Researchers and Artistic Directors at the ATR Media Integration and Communications Research Lab in Kyoto Japan. They also were Visiting Researchers at the MIT CAVS in Cambridge US, the Beckmann Institute in Champaign Urbana, IL, USA and the NTT-InterCommunication Center in Tokyo. Sommerer originally studied biology (botany) at the University of Vienna and modern sculpture and art education at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna (masters degree) .Mignonneau studied modern Art and Video Art at the “Ecole des Beaux Arts” in Angouleme, France where he received his masters degree. Sommerer and Mignonneau completed their PhD degrees from CAiiA-STAR, University of Wales College of Art, Newport, UK and the University of Kobe Japan, respectively. They have won mayor international media awards, for example the ""Golden Nica"" Ars Electronica Award for Interactive Art 1994 (Linz, Austria), the ""Ovation Award"" of the Interactive Media Festival 1995 (Los Angeles, USA), the ""Multi Media Award '95"" of the Multimedia Association Japan and the” World Technology Award” in London (2001). (http://www.interface.ufg.ac.at/christa-laurent/BIOGRAPHY/Biographylong.html)
CV

2015 Chaire Internationale Paris 8 University ATI Labex (Sommerer & Mignonneau)
2004-dato Professor at the InterfaceCulture Lab , Institute for Media, University of Art and Design, Linz, Austria (Sommerer & Mignonneau)
2001-2004 Associate Professor at IAMAS Institute of Advanced Media Arts and Sciences, Gifu, Japan (Sommerer & Mignonneau)
2002 - 2002 Sommerer: Visiting Professor at Kyoto University / Department of Social Informatics, Kyoto, Japan
2002 Sommerer: Ph.D. degree from CAiiA-Star, University of Wales College of Art, Newport / Prof. Roy Ascott
2001 - 2003 ATR Media Information Science Research Labs, Kyoto, Japan / Researcher & Artistic Directors (part-time)
2001 - 2001 Visiting Research Fellows at MIT, Cambridge/Boston / Center for Advanced Visual Studies
2001 Associate Professors at IAMAS / Institute of Advanced Media Arts and Sciences, Gifu, Japan
2000 - 2000 Guest Professors at University of Art and Design, Linz, Austria
2000 Life 2.0 - Honorary Award / Life 2.0 contest, Telefonica Spain
1999 Interactive Art Honorary Mention Award, Prix Ars Electronica 99, Linz / for HAZE Express
1998 - 2002 Mignonneau: PhD study at CAiiA-Star, University of Wales College of Art, Newport, UK / in Media Art
1997 - 1999 IAMAS, Gifu, Japan / Sommerer: Associate Professor, Mignonneau: Artist-in-Residence and lecturer
1996 - 1996 Mignonneau: Chair & Organizer of "ART-Science-ATR" symposium 1996, Kyoto Japan
1995 Artistic Directors & Researchers at ATR Media Integration and Communications Research Labs, Kyoto Japan
1995 Ovation Award, Interactive Media Festival, Los Angeles
1995 Inter Design Award, Japan Inter Design Forum, Tokyo
1994 - 1995 Artists-in-Residence, NTT-ICC InterCommunication Center, Tokyo Japan
1994 Golden Nica, Prix Ars Electronica 94 , Linz / for Interactive Art, awarded work: A-Volve
1994 Silicon Graphics Award, ISEA, Helsinki
1994 Multi Media Award, Multi Media Association, Tokio
1993 - 1994 Artists-in-Residence, NCSA National Center for Supercomputing Application, Beckman Institute, Urbana, IL USA
1992 Prisma Award for Computer Art
1991 - 1993 Post Graduate Study, Staedelschule Institut for New Media, Frankfurt
1991 Mignonneau: Master of Art, Academy of Fine Arts Angouleme
1990 - 1991 Mignonneau: CNBDI Department of Infography, Angouleme, France
1988 Mignonneau: National Diplom DNAP, Academy of Fine Arts Angouleme, France
1988 Mignonneau: National Diplom DNAP, Academy of Fine Arts Angouleme, France / for Plastic Art
1985 - 1990 Sommerer: Art Study , Academy of Fine Arts Vienna / in Art Education and Modern Sculpture (Prof. Gironcoli); 1990 Master of Art
1982 - 1985 Biology and Botany Study, University of Vienna, Austria
1964 Sommerer born in Ohlsdorf/Gmunden, Austria; Mignonneau born in Angouleme, France


News
Publications & References
Sommerer, Christa and Gerald Bast and Wolfgang Fiel. »Solar Display: A Self-powered Media Facade.« In New Realities: Being Syncretic, Consciousness Reframed: The Planetary Collegium’s IXth International Research Conference, edited by Roy AscottLeonardo, , 271-275. Vienna, New York: Springer Verlag, 2009.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. Interactive Art Research. Vienna/New York: Springer Verlag, 2009.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Media Facades as Architectural Interfaces.« The Art and Science of Interaction and Interface Design 1 (2008): 91-102.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau and Lakhmi C. Jain. The Art and Science of Interface and Interaction Design. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, 2008.
Grau, Oliver. Virtual Art: From Illusion to Immersion. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.
Nake, Frieder. »The Display as a Looking-Glass: Zu Ivan E. Sutherlands früher Vision der grafischen Datenverarbeitung.« In Visionen, Pardigmen und Leitmotive in der Geschichte der Informatik, edited by Hans Dieter Hellige. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2003.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau and Christine Schöpf. »From the Poesy of Programming to Research as Art.« In Ars Electronica 2003, CODE - The Language Of Our Times, edited by Gerfried Stocker. Ostfildern/Ruit: Hante Cantz Verlag, 2003.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Modeling the Emergence of Complexity: Complex Systems, the Origin of Life and Interactive On-Line Art.« LEONARDO Journal 35, no. 2 (April 2002): 567-575.
Grau, Oliver. Virtuelle Kunst in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Berlin: Reimer Verlag, 2001.
Grau, Oliver. »New Images from Life.« In Art Inquiry. Recherches sur les Arts, edited by Ryszard KluszinskyVol.II (XI). , 7-25. Lodz: Grotesk, 2001.
Huhtamo, Erkki and Perttu Rastas, ed. Outoäly - Alien Intelligence. Helsinki: Kiasma Nykytaiteen museo - Museum of Contemporary Art, 2000.
Museen der Stadt Dortmund, ed. vision.ruhr. Kunst Medien Interaktion auf der Zeche Zollern II/IV Dortmund. Ostfildern-Ruit: Hatje Cantz, 2000.
Grau, Oliver and j. Joerges. »Lebendige Bilder schaffen: Virtuelle Realität, Artificial Life und Transgenic Art.« In Sieben Hügel: Dschungel. Sammeln, Ordnen, Bewahren: Von der Vielfalt des Lebens zur Kultur der Natur, edited by B.-M. Baumunk, 47-53. Berlin: Henschel Verlag, 2000.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Life Spacies II.« In Ars Electronica 2000 - Next Sex, edited by Gerfried Stocker and Christine Schöpf, 392. Vienna, New York: Springer Verlag, 2000.
Grau, Oliver. »In das "lebendige" Bild: Die Virtuelle Realität setzt der Kunst neue Spielregeln.« neue bildende kunst. Zeitschrift für Kunst und Kritik , no. 6 (1997): 28-36.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« ICC InterCommunication Journal , no. 6 (October 1993).
Sommerer, Christa. »Interactive Art: Where Are We Now?.« In CyberArts2002, edited by Vol.Hatje Cantz Verlag. , 70-75. Ostfildern-Ruit: Hantje Cantz Verlag, 2002.
Sommerer, Christa and Roberto Lopez-Gulliver and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interfacing the Web: Multimodal and Immersive Interaction with the Internet.« In VSMM2002. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Virtual Systems and MultiMedia, edited by , 753-764. Gyeongju: VSMM 2002, 2002.
Sommerer, Christa. »A Life in Art, Design, Edutainment, Game and Research.« LEONARDO Journal 4 (2001): 297-298.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau and Roberto Lopez-Gulliver. »IKI-IKI Phone: a Multi-user Alife Art Game for Mobile Phones.« In IEEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2001), Conference Proceedings, edited by . Tokyo: 2001.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Creating and Communicating with Virtual Life on Mobile Phones.« In SCI 2001 - 5th World Multiconference on Systemcis, Cyberneticx and Informatics, Conference Proceedings, edited by , 64-70. Orlando: International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, 2001.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau and Roberto et. al. Lopez-Gulliver. »Riding the Net: A Novel, Intuitive and Entertaining Tool to Browse the Internet.« In SCI 2001 – 5th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics Conference Proceedings, edited by International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, 57-63. Orlando: International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, 2001.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau and Roberto AND Satomi Lopez-Gulliver. »IKI-IKI Phone - A Multi-user Alife Art Game for Mobile Phones.« In Cast01 - Living in Mixed Realities Conference Proceedings, edited by Frauenhofer Institute, 113-117. Bonn: Frauenhofer Institute, 2001.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Creating Artificial Life for Interactive Art and Entertainment.« In Artificial Life VII Workshop Proceedings, edited by , 149-153. Portland: University of Portland, 2000.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Modeling Complex Systems for Interactive Art.« In Applied Complexity – From Neural Nets to Managed Landscapes, edited by Halloy S. and T. Williams, 25-38. Christchurch: Institute for Crop and Food Research, 2000.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Designing Interfaces for Interactive Artworks.« In KES 2000 Knowledge Based Engineering Systems, Conference Proceedings, edited by , 80-84. Brighton: University of Brighton, 2000.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »PICO_SCAN - Interactive Computer Installation.« In 7 Hills: Images and Signs of the 21st Century, edited by Berliner Festspiele, 52-53. Berlin: Henschel Verlag and Berliner Festspiele, 2000.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »PICO_SCAN: Using Body Data to Create Artificial Life Forms.« In AROB 5th International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics Conference Proceedings, edited by , 124-127. Oita: Oita University, 2000.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Life Spacies II.« In Microwave – International Media Art Festival 2001, exhibition catalog, ed. E. Pau and T. Kong (Hong Kong: Microwave, 2001), 8-9., edited by E. Pau and T. Kong, 8-9. Hong Kong: Microwave, 2000.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Artea sistema bizitzat hartua.« ZEHAR magazine (2000): 38-44.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Life Spacies II - Instalacion interactiva de realidad virtual.« In Cibervisión 99: Arte Ciencia Nuevas Tecnologias: I Muestra Internacional, edited by Karin Öhlschlager, 42-43. Madrid: Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »HAZE Express.« In CyberArts 1999: International Compendium - Prix Ars Electronica 1999, edited by Hannes Leopoldseder and Christine Schöpf, 92-93. Vienna, New York: Springer Verlag, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »VERBARIUM.« In Ars Electronica ´99 - Cyberarts99, edited by , 52-53. New York, Vienna: Springer Verlag, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Arte Y Ciencia - La Creacion en Todo su Potencial.« In Cyber@rt IV Muestra Internacional des Nuevas Tecnologias Tecnologías, Arte y Comunicación, edited by Angela Molina, 76-83. Valencia: 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Text as Genetic Code: Creating Visual Language on the Internet.« In CADE’99 Computers in Art and Design Conference Proceedings, edited by , Appendix. Teeside: University of Teeside, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »VERBARIUM and LIFE SPACIES: Creating a Visual Language by Transcoding Text into Form on the Internet.« In IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages Conference (VL’99), edited by , 90-95. Tokyo: VL´99, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau and Roberto Lopez-Gulliver. »Time_lapse: An Immersive Interactive Environment Based on Historic Stereo Images.« In IEEE SMC`99 System, Man and Cybernetics Conference Proceedings, edited by . : 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Text as Genetic Code: Creating Visual Language on the Internet.« In CADE’99 Computers in Art and Design Conference Proceedings, edited by , Appendix. Teeside: University of Teeside, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Life Spacies: A Genetic Text-to-form Editor on the Internet.« In AROB’99 International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics Conference Proceedings, edited by , 73-77. Oita: Oita University, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Life Spacies.« In SMAU’99, edited by . Milano, IT: 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Life Spacies.« In Siggraph’99 Conference Abstracts and Applications, edited by , 170. New York: ACM, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »La importancia de los institutos mediaticos de caracter interdisciplinario.« In Cibervisión 99: Arte Ciencia Nuevas Tecnologias: I Muestra Internacional, edited by Karin Ohlenschläger, 34-41. Madrid: Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In Ars Electronica - Facing the Future, edited by , 393-394. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« edited by F. Magalhães and Diana Domingues, 43. Porto Alegre, Brazil: 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In Media Time: WOOD and BYTE: Festival delle nuove tecnologie mulitmediali, edited by M. G. Mattei, 56-61. Bolzano, IT: Centro Audiovisivi, Bolzano, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In Ars Electronica - Facing the Future, edited by , 393-394. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »HAZE Express.« In The Interaction’99, edited by Itsuo Sakane. Gifu, Japan: IAMAS Academy and Softopia, Japan, 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Maurice Benayoun and Lucy Petrovich and Knipp, Tammy and Thomas Lehner. »Experimental Computer Art.« In Siggraph’99 Conference Abstracts and Applications, edited by ACM SIGGRAPH, 142-143. New York: 1999.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau, ed. Art @ Science. Wien, New York: Springer Verlag, 1998.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »The Application Of Artificial Life to Interactive Computer Installations.« Artificial Life and Robotics Journal 2, no. 4 (1998): 151-156.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Gulliver´s Travels: Interacting with a 3-D Panoramic Photographic Scene.« In CICAT’98 8th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Tele-Existence, edited by Virtual Reality Society, 47-53. Tokyo: Virtual Reality Society, 1998.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In VIDÉOFORMES 98. Culture Contemporaine Arts Video, Nouvelles Technologies, edited by G. Soucheyre, 10-13. Clermont Ferrand: Turbulences Vidéo, 1998.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In Arte Virtual - Realidad Plural, edited by Karin Ohlenschläger. Monterrey, Mexico: Museo de Monterrey, 1997.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interacting with Artificial Life: A-Volve.« Complexity Journal 2, no. 6 (1997): 13-21.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »The Application of Artificial Life to Interactive Computer InstaIlations.« In AROB’97 International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics, Conference Proceedings, edited by , 11-15. Oita: Oita University, 1997.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »A-Volve - An Evolutionary Artificial Life Environment.« In Artificial Life, edited by Christopher G. Langton and Katsunori Shimohara, 167-175. Boston: MIT Press, 1997.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Life Spacies.« In ICC Concept Book: Exploring the Future of Imagination, edited by K. Yahagi and InterCommunication Center, 96-101. Tokyo: ICC Tokyo, 1997.
Sommerer, Christa. »Collaboration between the Arts and the Sciences.« In Ars Electronica Center - Museum of the Future, edited by , 120-125. Linz: Linz Landesverlag, 1996.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »GENMA-Genetic Manipulator.« In Ars Electronica ´96. Memesis of the Future, edited by Art Electronica, 294-295. Wien, New York: Springer Verlag, 1996.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »MIC Exploration Space.« In Siggraph’96 Visual Proceedings, edited by . New York: ACM, 1996.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Kunst als Lebendiges System.« In Softlife-Heise Online, edited by . München: Heise Verlag, 1996.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In Ciberfestival 96: imagens do futuro, edited by L. Da Costa and M. Do Rosário. Lisbon, Portugal: Forum Telecom, 1996.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau and U. Yoshiyuki. »The World of Art and Artificial Life.« Computer Today Journal 1, no. 71 (1996): 41-46.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau and M. Kusahara. »Art as Living System.« Systems, Control, and Information Journal 40, no. 8 (1996): 16-23.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In Electra’96, edited by A. Esperø. Oslo, Norway: Henie Onstad Kunstsenter, 1996.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »A-Volve.« In ARCO’96: Feria International de Arte Contemporáneo, edited by C. Goodman. Madrid, ES: ARCO / IFEMA - Feria de Madrid, International Contemporary Art Fair, 1996.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »A-Volve.« In ARCO’96: Feria International de Arte Contemporáneo, edited by C. Goodman. Madrid, ES: ARCO / IFEMA - Feria de Madrid, International Contemporary Art Fair, 1996.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In ArsLab-I Sensi del Virtuale, edited by . Turin, IT: 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »A-Volve: An Artificial Life Environment.« In CNIASE´95, conference proceedings. Guyana, Venezuela, edited by . Guyana: CNIASE, 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Anthroposcope.« In Scultura e Oltre: 16th International Biennale del Bronzetto e della Piccola Scultura, edited by G. Franco and Ernesto Luciano Franaclanci. Padova: Il Poligrafo, 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Phototropy.« In Oltre Il Villaggio Globale: Beyond the Global Village, edited by M. G. Mattei and P. Berté, 134-135. Milano: Electra Edition, 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Trans Plant.« In Imagination - Images and Technology Gallery Exhibition Theme I, edited by T. Moriyama. Tokyo: Tokyo Metropolitan Museum Of Photography, 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »A-Volve.« In The Interactive Media Festival ’95, edited by Tim Druckrey and L. Goldman. Los Angeles: 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Phototropy.« In Art as Signal: Inside the Loop, edited by K. Chmelewski and N. Goggin and J. Squier. Champaign, ILL: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and Krannert Art Museum, 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Intro Act.« In 3rd Biennale d´Art Contemporain de Lyon, edited by H. Destezet, 378-381. Paris: Reunion des Musees Nationaux/ Biennale d´Art Contemporain, 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In Lab 5: International Film, Video and Computer Art Exhibition 1995, edited by Ryszard Kluszczynski. Warsaw: 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »A-Volve.« In Water, edited by Kaoru Amano. Tokyo, Japan: 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »A-Volve.« In The Interactive Media Festival ’95, edited by Tim Druckrey and L. Goldman. Los Angeles: 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »A-Volve.« In WRO 95: Media Art Festival, edited by P. Krajewski. Wroclaw: 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »A-Volve.« edited by K. Hong-hee and C. Goodman. Kwangju, South Korea: 1995.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In Arte Virtual - Doce propuestas de Arte Reactivo, edited by Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. Madrid: Electa Edition, 1994.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing and A-Volve.« In Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau, edited by M. Kusahara. Tokyo, Japan: ICC InterCommunication Center, NTT, 1994.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In interActiva –Internationales Festival für Interaktive Medien, edited by Andrea Zapp. Köln, DE: 1993.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In Ars Electronica 1993 - Genetische Kunst - Künstlisches Leben / Genetic Art - Artificial Life, edited by Karl Gerbel and Peter Weibel, 408-414. Vienna: PVS Verleger, 1993.
Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau. »Interactive Plant Growing.« In FISEA Fourth International Symposium on Electronic Art, edited by Päivi; Huhtamo Talasmaa. Minneapolis, USA: ISEA Publications, 1993.